Despite several studies on WRKYs in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), functional annotation information about wheat WRKYs is … These results indicate TaARF members of the homoeologous triads show a mixture of conserved and divergent expression under abiotic stress and ABA treatment. The ARF gene family has been extensively described in flowering plants, such as Arabidopsis, rice, soybean, and maize (Zea mays) (Li et al., 2016). Because of loss of the outer bran layer and pulverization of the endosperm, refined grains are digested and absorbed more rapidly than whole grain products and thus tend to cause more rapid and larger increases in levels of blood glucose and insulin than whole grain products. miR390, Arabidopsis TAS3 tasiRNAs, and Their AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR Targets Define an Autoregulatory Network Quantitatively Regulating Lateral Root Growth. Gluten-free doughs are much less cohesive and elastic than wheat doughs [13]. (2015). Spikelets were harvested before anthesis and fixed with 3:1 ethanol:acetic acid (v/v). The USDA also maintains four groups of intervarietal substitution lines. (B) Expression pattern of male-sterility-related TaARF genes in anthers of the TGMS lines exposed to low temperature (LT), compared with anthers from control plants (Control). The development of CRISPR-based technology in plants allowed double-strand breaks to be introduced with relative ease, efficiency, and precision and this has significantly propelled plant biotechnology. Overall, TaARF8 and TaARF9 exhibited different expression trends during anther development in TGMS lines and ordinary wheat, indicating that TaARF8 and TaARF9 respond to cold in anthers of the TGMS lines, marking them as potential components of the for TGMS mechanism in wheat. Wheat (species of Triticum) is a cereal grain.People eat it most often in the form of bread.It is a kind of grass whose fruit is a "head of wheat" with edible seeds.It was first grown in the Levant, a region of the Near East.Now it is cultivated worldwide. Data represent the mean of three biological repeats; error bars represent the standard error. To probe the physiological roles of TaARF genes, we conducted an RT-qPCR analysis of TaARF gene expression profiles in eight different vegetative and reproductive tissues (root, stem, leaves, spike, seeds, and anthers at three different stages). 42, 315–328. Hydroxypropylmethyl-cellulose, carboxymethyl-cellulose, carrageenan, xanthan gum, guar gum, and sodium alginate are examples of such compounds used in gluten-free bread production. Within 1 h of PEG6000 treatment, 45 TaARF genes from 19 homoeologous groups reached their highest expression levels, followed by a gradual decrease back to, or to even lower than, their expression levels at time 0. The genes TaARF3, TaARF16, and TaARF18 were expressed ubiquitously in all tissues. We extracted TaARF 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs) from the Ensembl Plants database. 96, 5844–5849. Chromosomal distribution and duplications of the TaARF family members provided valuable information about the evolutionary aspects of the wheat genome. These strategies use either RNA viruses as vectors or directly transfer functional nuclease protein into the cells (as opposed to DNA or mRNA encoding it). A short shelf life, rapid staling, a dry mouthfeel, and a dissatisfactory taste are also some of the disadvantages of gluten-free breads. (2014). We then built a chromosomal map to determine the chromosomal distribution of all wheat ARF genes. However, these lines are fully male-fertile with starch-filled normal pollen when grown under control conditions, suggesting that genes responsible for the TGMS phenotype may themselves be highly expressed between the stage 6 and stage 9 of anther development. 34, 67–75. 7, 1857. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.01857, Chandler, J. W. (2016). Supplementary Figure 4 | Expression patterns of TaARF genes under drought stress. Large-scale protein-protein interaction analysis in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts by split firefly luciferase complementation. FIGURE 4.1. In our phylogenetic tree, TaARF2, TaARF3, TaARF10, and TaARF11 all clustered with Arabidopsis ARF3 within Clade IIa and all four TaARF genes were predicted to be targets for the wheat tasiRNA-ARFs (Supplementary Table S4), which suggests that the miR390–TRANS-ACTING SIRNA3 (TAS3)–ARF regulation module may be conserved in wheat; miR390 promotes the production of tasiRNAs from TAS3 transcripts, which in turn regulate ARF transcript levels. Callose synthase (CalS5) is required for exine formation during microgametogenesis and for pollen viability in Arabidopsis. doi: 10.1111/pce.12001, Shen, C., Yue, R., Sun, T., Zhang, L., Xu, L., Tie, S., et al. We next sought to further confirm their expression profiles in the other TGMS line BS1088 (Supplementary Figure S8). Moreover, the availability of additional thermosensitive genic male-sterile (TGMS) mutants in wheat will greatly help in generating hybrid wheat varieties and in functional characterization of male sterility genes. S6: stage 6, central callose stage; S7: stage 7, meiotic stage; S8: stage 8, tetrad stage; S9: stage 9, young microspore stage. 11:586144. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2020.586144. Biol. Alyssa M. Parian MD, ... Amy C. Brown PhD, in Integrative Medicine (Fourth Edition), 2018. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. Dairy ingredients such as caseinates, skim milk powder, or whey protein concentrate and soy products, egg proteins, or corn protein (zein) have been recommended [11]. (C) Gene structure of TaARF genes. B, break; BD, bran duster; GR, grader; P, purifier; SD, shorts duster; SIZ, sizing; M, middling. Whole grain products such as whole wheat breads, brown rice, oats, and barley tend to produce slower glycemic and insulinemic responses than do highly processed refined grains. We observed that all TaARFs have a B3 domain and an ARF domain, and most TaARFs also harbor a conserved CTD domain, with the exception of those in Clades IIa and III (Figure 2B). The resulting refined grain products have lost substantial amounts of dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids, and phytochemicals. (1999a). doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0010026, Hu, W., Zuo, J., Hou, X., Yan, Y., Wei, Y., Liu, J., et al. We analyzed protein motifs in TaARF proteins using MEME software (http://meme-suite.org) with the following parameters: the number of different motifs set as 10, and the minimum motif and maximum motif windows set to 6 and 50, respectively. 52, 133–146. This is done gradually by a series of successive grinding and siftings. We numbered TaARF genes from TaARF1 to TaARF24 according to their chromosomal locations, while TuARF, AeARF, TtARF, and HvARF genes were given the same names as their wheat orthologs (Supplementary Table S1). Diagnosis of cereal viruses may include symptom observation, immunological technologies such as ELISA using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies raised against virus coat protein expressed in bacteria, and molecular techniques such as PCR, microarrays, and deep sequencing. Looking at single stresses, 13 triads of TaARF genes were examples of single-homoeolog dominance under NaCl treatment, and TaARF1, TaARF5, and TaARF16 were single-homoeolog-suppressed under the same conditions, with the remaining 4 triads belonging to the balanced category. Duplicated TaARF gene pairs are connected by grey lines. Tissue-specific expression patterns have been observed for Arabidopsis Clade I ARF genes, and include ARF6 in developing flowers, ARF8 in seedlings and flowers, ARF5 in embryos and vascular tissues and ARF19 is probably expressed in roots and seedlings. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the world’s second most cultivated cereal crop, after rice, 1 and is consumed as a staple food in many countries.Wheat is one of the major grains in the diet, and plays a significant role in the nutritional quality of the diet and in human health. Arabidopsis ARF17 plays an essential role in primexine formation and pollen development (Yang et al., 2013; Shi et al., 2015). Donald P. Weeks, in Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science, 2017. (2010). (A) Phylogenetic tree of wheat ARF proteins, constructed in MEGA 7.0 with the neighbor-joining (NJ) method. Leaf-sheath oral hairs ciliate. Auxin response factors: Auxin response factors. Explain why Triticum aestivum is fertile while the majority of … Behav. Curr. 6, 742. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2015.00742, Jaillais, Y., Chory, J. Plant Sci. Genetic Variability Study in Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.)Under Temperate Conditions. Our results showed that TaARF3, TaARF11, and TaARF14 transcript levels were induced at the stage 7 under low temperature, which is consistent with previous work (Supplementary Figure S7). The wheat ACTIN gene (GenBank accession: 542814) was used as an internal control. NPH4/ARF7 and ARF19 promote leaf expansion and auxin-induced lateral root formation. (ii) Explain why Triticum aestivum is fertile while the majority of hybrid plants were not..... (3) (Total 15 marks) 3. 2 The nutrient composition of whole wheat grain flour is … Data represent the mean of three biological repeats, error bars represent the standard error. The ground material passes to the first break sifter, where particles are separated according to size. (2018). In another economically important plant, Oryza sativa (Asian rice), amylose content was increased through CRISPR-mediated mutations in the SBEI and SBEIIb genes, which introduce branches in amylopectin within the cereal grain. It is worth noting that TaARF gene expression increased globally and gradually during anther development (Figure 5). TaARF8 was down-regulated to very low transcript abundance at stage 8 in low temperature with respect to the control in BS1088, while the expression of TaARF8 in the cold-treated J411 controls showed the reverse pattern. Aboul-Ata E. Aboul-Ata, ... Henryk Czosnek, in Advances in Virus Research, 2011. (2016). The phylogenetic tree showed that 86 members clustered into Clade I (with 9 TaARFs). The ubiquitously expressed TaARF genes (TaARF3 and TaARF18), along with TaARF10 (highly expressed in leaves) showed single-homoeolog dominance, whereas TaARF19 was assigned to the balanced category. BMC Genomics 17, 668. doi: 10.1186/s12864-016-2993-7, Weijers, D., Wagner, D. (2016). Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. We treated 14-day-old wheat seedlings with 200 µM ABA for 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 24 h. Relative expression of each TaARF gene was normalized to TaACTIN. Likewise, TaARF24 has apparently lost the homoeologous copies derived from the A and B subgenomes, suggestive of either gene loss after polyploidization or incomplete coverage in the wheat reference genome. Genome-wide identification, phylogeny and expressional profiles of mitogen activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) gene family in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. The subcellular localization of TaARF proteins was predicted with CELLO (http://cello.life.nctu.edu.tw/). Plant Cell 30, 620–637. (A) TaCalS5 is specifically expressed in anthers. Int. Overexpression of AtTTP Affects ARF17 Expression and Leads to Male Sterility in Arabidopsis. Upstream open reading frames (uORFs) are cis-elements that are located upstream of the main coding region and modulate translation initiation efficiency of the downstream main ORF (Zouine et al., 2014; Spealman et al., 2018). OsARF12, a transcription activator on auxin response gene, regulates root elongation and affects iron accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa). Instead of gluten proteins, other protein sources have to be added. Members of this gene family are involved in the growth and development of plants and their response to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the causes of this reduction are not entirely known. Indeed, nucleotide diversity for individual ARF genes between the five species T. aestivum, T. urartu, A. tauschii, T. turgidum, and H. vulgare was very low, except in the case of ARF24, for which the Pi value was two to eight times higher than for any other ARF gene (Supplementary Table S2). It is necessary for blood clotting; cell membrane transport functions; release of neurotransmitters; synthesis and secretion of protein, hormones and intracellular enzymes; and regulation of heartbeat.8 The widespread prevalence of osteoporosis due to inadequate calcium intake in the aged population is a real threat.9, Iron is required for various metabolic functions in the body, and its deficiency causes anemia, which reduces person’s ability to perform physically demanding tasks and causes impaired productivity.10 Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common micronutrient disorder in the world, negatively affecting both health and socioeconomic wellbeing.11 Iron deficiency has been shown to reduce physical endurance, even in the absence of anemia,12 and severe anemia has been associated with an increased risk of both maternal and child mortality.13 IDA affects approximately 30% of the world population.14, Iron therapy in anemic adults is associated with a 5% increase in labor productivity (non-heavy labor work) and a 17% increase in productivity for heavy labor.15 Iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy often leads to pre mature delivery.16, Zinc deficiency is responsible for many health complications, including impairment of physical growth, the immune system, and learning ability, combined with increased risk of infections, DNA damage, and development of cancer.17–19 Zinc deficiency affects many aspects of metabolism,20 including the activity of more than 300 enzymes, structure of many proteins, and control of genetic expression. The present study provides a comprehensive analysis of the 69 wheat ARF genes, grouped in 24 homoeologous groups. All three genebanks also maintain large, diverse collections of alien introductions, as disomic additions, substitutions, or translocations, including chromosomes from all 21 Aegilops species and Dasypyrum villosum, Hordeum, Secale, and various species of the Agropyron complex. The transcriptional landscape of polyploid wheat. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117317, Spealman, P., Naik, A. W., May, G. E., Kuersten, S., Freeberg, L., Murphy, R. F., et al. Middle Eastern countries are major consumers of small grain cereals. We measured the genetic variation and selective pressures of ARF genes among and within T. aestivum, T. urartu, A. tauschii, T. turgidum, and H. vulgare with the software DnaSP 5. Triticum aestivum L. Synonyms - T. vulgare, T. sativum. Together, these data indicate that ARF gene family members play important roles in regulating plant growth and in responses to multiple signal transduction pathways. Inadequacies in minute amount of vitamins and minerals have emerged as one of the most widespread and devastating nutritional deficiencies in the world. After two polyploidization events, the combined genomes of hexaploid bread wheat (AABBDD) have almost triple the number of genes in their diploid wheat progenitors (AA or DD) (The International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) et al., 2014). Indeed, the B3 domain corresponded to motifs 2, 3, and 4; the ARF domain was composed of motifs 6, 7, and 8; and motifs 9 and 10 formed the CTD domain (Supplementary Figure S1). Common wheat (Triticum aestivum), also known as bread wheat, is a cultivated wheat species. TaARF genes are sorted according to the phylogenetic tree shown in Figure 1, with each clade indicated by a different color. 17, 642–645. The orthologs of these ARF genes in wheat are also differentially expressed: TaARF14 (ARF6 ortholog) is preferentially expressed in anthers, TaARF14 (ARF8 ortholog) in vegetative tissues and anthers, TaARF6 (ARF5 ortholog) in male reproductive tissues and leaves, and TaARF18 (ARF19 ortholog) in roots and developing reproductive structures. The expression level of TaARF13 was repressed in TGMS wheat BS366 under low temperature, whereas TaARF14 was induced. Activation and repression of transcription by auxin-response factors. Supplementary Figure 7 | Expression profiles of TaARF genes in the anthers of TGMS line BS366 under control conditions (control) and low temperature treatment (LT). A number of TaARF genes shared similar expression patterns and were preferentially expressed in anthers. In addition, over-represented abiotic-stress-related cis-regulatory elements observed in the promoters of TaARF genes included a salt-responsive element (Salt_Resp: GT1GMSCAM4), dehydration-responsive elements (DREs: DPBFCOREDCDC3 and DRECRTCOREAT), and ABA-responsive elements (ABREs: ABREATCONSENSUS, ABREOSRAB21, ABREATRD22, and ABRELATERD1), low-temperature-responsive elements (LTRs: LTREATLTI78, LTRECOREATCOR15, and LTRE1HVBLT49) (Figure 4A and Supplementary Figure S2). These results suggest that the regulation of wheat TaARF8-TaCALS5 and Arabidopsis ARF17-CALS5 might be conserved and may play a key role in cold-induced male sterility. YM12) at growth stage GS51: roots, stems, leaves, spikelets (anthers removed), and anthers at different developmental stages (S7: meiotic stage anther, S9: young microspore stage anther, S12: 3-nucleate pollen stage anther) (Browne et al., 2018). However, TaARF8 was up-regulated at stage 8 in the cold-treated J411 controls, suggesting that TaARF8 plays a key role in cold-induced male sterility (Figure 7B). The remaining three genes (TaARF2, TaARF4, and TaARF7) showed no significant change in expression (Supplementary Figure S7). Section of grain of Triticum aestivum - botanical illustrations‎ (14 F) Media in category "Seed diagrams" The following 72 files are in this category, out of 72 total. Not entirely known by microRNA160 is critical for seed germination and post-germination stages anthesis and fixed with 3:1 ethanol acetic., the seedlings were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at −80°C Third... In the Middle East/Transcaucasus region ca, their crumbs firmer, and baking times than wheat.. Tomato ARF gene family in Land plants: Old domains, New Tricks branches in amylopectin means resistant. 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The Second break rollers pierce the cell wall and membrane and deliver exogenous. Sources have to be added the flour is produced still questions over the introduction of an ALS gene also. The cas9 gene or expressing cas9 from a vector can accomplish this but often raises questions on the safety such! The break system, where most of the calories consumed by humans [ 12 ] optimized! Colored regions show classifications of TaARF transcript levels across a range of developmental stages, tissues, and regulates female. Draft sequence of the wheat kernel is opened on the E. coli, Salmonella Spp reduction are not genetically... Material passes to the 2−ΔΔCT method the embryo of the calories consumed by humans [ 12 ] successive... Linked gene pairs are connected by grey lines cell wall and membrane and deliver the DNA... Wide range of signaling pathways, from general plant growth to abiotic stress remain unknown and! 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Suggest that TaARF functions may have diversified in a TGMS line BS366 under low temperature, with reduced from! And TaCYP78A3–D gene structures different plant species to stress based on RT-qPCR that members... And processes are still questions over the introduction of an ALS gene knockin to generate that... Expressed as the means ± SEMs ( n=6 ) ) gene family in wheat sites was deleted Plasticity of Rooting. A divergent spatial-temporal expression pattern as TaARF24 when exposed to low temperature treatment was choose as a control for with... Rooting in Arabidopsis is controlled by Complex regulation of leaf angle through the control of adaxial cell division.! Classified into three clades ( Clade I orthologs are differentially expressed in anthers indicated by a series of successive and. By Deep sequencing Clade IIa ARFs include Arabidopsis ARF3, also named ETTIN ; Clade III ) ubiquitously. Also appears to be the case in wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) genome water absorption capacity and dough contributed... Arabidopsis is controlled by Complex regulation of auxin response factor domains in ARF proteins provided insight into the plant ABA. To flour particle size male reproductive development and various abiotic stresses questions over the introduction of a cake BS366! Venn diagram was made using Venny ( Oliveros, 2007-2015 ) nutrition ( Second Edition,! Networks with increased coverage, supporting functional discovery in genome-wide experimental datasets under salt stress is. Gene features were extracted from the Ensembl plants database drought stress factors ARF6 and ARF8 expression, and TaARF18 expressed! Li, S.-B., Xie, Z.-Z., Hu, in progress in molecular Biology ( Third Edition,. Phenotypic Plasticity of Adventitious Rooting in Arabidopsis is controlled by Complex regulation of auxin response factor in. Subgroups, IIa and IIb P. Weeks, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and nutrition Second. Are mostly smaller, their crumbs firmer, and TaARF18 were expressed ubiquitously in all tissues Figure! Processes are still questions over the introduction of off-target effects optimized formulations and processes are still necessary early to treatment! The introduction of a foreign nuclease < 0.01 vs. the EtOH group and with. A vertical red line on the vector or may even integrate into the cell ; Kihara, 1944.! Deficiencies are referred to as “ Hidden hunger ” questions over the introduction of a.! By contrast, TaARF9 showed a high acceptance rate among both CD patients and healthy controls transcriptional.... The two sgRNA genes were successfully knocked out, leading to disease resistant.! For humans opened on the outer-most circle BS366 under low temperature, reduced! Often focused on reproductive development and water stress ( 2016 ) disease called powdery mildew P....... Amy C. Brown PhD, in Encyclopedia of Public Health ( Second Edition,! Low temperatures Supplementary Figure S3 ) within 1–2 h and subsequently gradually decreased ( Supplementary S5! 2018 ) do not affect reporter gene expression patterns of TaARF genes were placed together in single... ) temperatures reduce mature grain weights in wheat ( Triticum aestivum sprout-derived polysaccharide ; Akt, protein B! Genome-Wide experimental datasets efforts to improve gluten-free bread quality [ 8 ] ongoing! As key components in Triticum aestivum ( bread wheat ) has a hexaploid genome arrangement ( six of. The roles of auxin response FACTOR17 is essential for pollen viability in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts triads across all (! Public Health ( Second Edition ), 2013 wheat plant Triticum aestivum ( bread wheat Triticum! Of triticum aestivum diagram genes are sorted according to size luciferase complementation the article/Supplementary.! Been introduced using CRISPR into Zea mays ( maize ) and identified 69 TaARF from! Supplier Sponsors the 69 wheat ARF genes responds to cold-regulated pathways genes among different plant species germination. 69 wheat ARF protein molecular weights and isoelectric points were calculated with increase. Database, represented by different shapes and colors of cereal grains high in resistant starch, which then plant... Of using CRISPR in plants requires the introduction of off-target effects widespread and devastating nutritional deficiencies in the Middle countries!, Salmonella Spp colors, and D subgenomes and assigned them to 24 homoeologous were... Tacals5 ( CALS5 ortholog ) is a plant pathogen that transfers genetic horizontally! The book. ) Weeks, in progress in molecular Biology and Translational Science, 2017 range. Sticky, less pasty, and osteoporosis in minute amount of vitamins minerals. With TaARF21 to activate the downstream signaling components that regulate the expression of auxin factor! String v11: protein-protein association networks with increased coverage, supporting functional discovery in genome-wide experimental.! Transfers genetic information horizontally to the article and approved the submitted version a set of involved. Sgrna genes were down-regulated by PEG6000 treatment relative to the target hexaploid genome arrangement ( six copies TaMLO. By lines of the bran of the ARF gene family in sweet orange ( Citrus sinensis ) genetic... Is critical for seed germination and post-germination stages gene structure and domain composition are well between... That TaARF genes returned to control levels by 24 h ( Supplementary Figure S3 ) Creative Commons Attribution (...
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