Bulbils usually tan, round and smooth, Asian, or round and dark brown with light dimples, African. Phytochemistry 20:1569-1571. 13 SATO A, 1989 Studies on anti-tumor activity of crude drugs. Dioscorea bulbifera is a perennial vine with broad, alternate leaves, and two types of storage organs. Vines with tuberous root stocks; Stem terete, twining to left. 2. p818. These tubers are attached at the stem and look like potatoes. V. Structure of diosbulbin D, E, F, G & H. Justus Liebigs Ann Chem. Efloraofindia (earlier Indiantreepix) is the largest Google e-group in the world in this field & largest nature related in India devoted to creating awareness, helping in identification etc. There is no available information documenting the safety of medicinal use for children or for women during breast feeding. Plants tuberous or not; tubers, when present, buried just below ground surface, globose; stems twining counter-clockwise, climbing to more than 20 m , often flecked with purple, unwinged or rarely narrowly winged, terete , producing axillary bulbils, up to more than 5 cm in diameter. p64. research studies June 17 2015. Phytochemistry 23(3):623-625. It is just a large vine, 6 meters (20 feet) or more long. Seeds unilaterally winged, 12-20 mm. The root of Dioscorea bulbifera is used as detoxicant, discutient, expectorant and hemostatic in traditional Chinese medicine (CTM) and widely adopted in treating different diseases and health problems, such as sore throat and hematemesis. In a… 5 MURRAY R, JORGE KHAN N, SHAHJAHAN M, QUAISUDDIN M, 1984 Diosbulbin D and 8-epidiosbulbin E acetate, norclerodane diterpenoids from Dioscorea bulbifera tubers. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti. Underground root roundish, can be lumpy and distorted when grown in hard soil. D. bulbifera . 6 KHAN N, NUR-E-KAMAL M, SHAHJAHAN M, HASAN C, 1986 Chemical investigation of tubers of Dioscorea bulbifera l. Variety sativa. Scientific name: Dioscorea bulbifera Name in different languages:-English: Air yam, Bitter yam. Air potato (Dioscorea bulbifera) is a member of the yam family (Dioscoreaceae). Dioscorea polystachya (cinnamon vine, Chinese yam): This white fleshed edible tuber of good flavor has a hardiness rating of Zones 5 to 10, and will remain alive in the ground overwinter, sending up handsome tall twining shoots in the spring. vera Prain & Burkill Dioscorea crispata Roxb. Proximate analysis of 100 g of tuber10: calories: 112; water: 71%; proteins: 1.5%; fat: 0.1%; carbohydrates: 26.5%; fiber: 0.9%; ash: 0.9%; calcium: 69 mg; phosphorus: 29 mg. For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection. Khaka Univ Stud Part B 34(1):111-113. Dioscorea hofika Jum. TRAMIL quality, safety and effectiveness strategy, Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys. The information provided is for educational purposes only for the benefit of the general public and health professionals. The present study was undertaken to investigate the hepatotoxicity induced by D. bulbifera in mice. Monocots. Family. 2 WHO, 1991 Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicines. It is not intended to take the place of either the written law or regulations. Air potato has inconspicuous flowers that don't usually appear because they aren't necessary for propagation. This naturalized Polynesian canoe plant and weed is native to Africa, Asia, and Australia. Winged yam (Dioscorea alata) is another non-native, invasive vine in Florida. 3 IDA Y, KUBO S, FUJITA M, KOMORI T, KAWASAKI T, 1978 Furanoid diterpenes from plants of the Discoreaceae. Prevention is a key step in the management of air potato. Duration: Perennial Growth Habit: Vine, Herb/Forb Hawaii Native Status: Introduced. For documenting flora of India that is being discussed on efloraofindia google e-group along with supplementing the working of the group. Diosgenin is a steroidal saponin, which is extracted from the root of Wild Yam (Dioscorea villosa) and other species. Pronunciation of Dioscorea bulbifera with 2 audio pronunciations, 2 synonyms, 1 meaning and more for Dioscorea bulbifera. Dioscorea bulbifera . D. bulbifera is an aggressive invasive plant that is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Leaves 9-25 x 8-23 cm, ovate-suborbicular, base deeply cordate, apex acuminate to shortly caudate, membranous, glabrous, basally 9-11-ribbed; petiole to 20 cm long. Twining and sprawling stems with long-petioled heart-shaped leaves. It restores strength in woman after delivery. Š) **. Winged yam is known to have “disprupted natural-area plant communities, particularly coastal hammocks in south Florida.” WHO/TRM/91.4. 10 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Dioscorea bulbifera can form dense masses of vines that cover and kill native vegetation including trees within a variety of habitats such as forest edges, hammocks, and many disturbed areas. 6 KHAN N, NUR-E-KAMAL M, SHAHJAHAN M, HASAN C, 1986 Chemical investigation of tubers of Dioscorea bulbifera l. Variety sativa. air yam. VII. 9 RAGHUNADAN K, JOLLY C, 1987 Starch from Dioscorea bulbifera. Despite some medicinal and agricultural uses, D. bulbifera is widely characterized as an organism that outcompetes and smothers native vegetation. Capsules longer than wide, 1.8-2.8 × 1-1.5 cm. The tuber contains diterpenes: diosbulbin A and C to H3, diosbulbinoside D and F4, 8-epi-diosbulbin5; the steroid: stigmasterol6; benzenoids: 4,6-dihydroxy-2-O-(4'-hydroxybutyl)-acetophenone, 4-hydroxy-(2-trans-3'-7'-dimethyl-octa-2'-6'-dienyl)-6-methoxy-acetophenone, demethyl batatasin IV7, batatasin I8. Dioscorea root extract benefit and side effects by Ray Sahelian, M.D. Dioscorea hoffa Cordem. Dioscoreales > Dioscoreaceae > Dioscorea bulbifera L. Synonym(s): air potato, bitter yam, air-potato, air yam Dioscorea bulbifera– USDA PLANTS Profile The cultivated forms of D. bulbifera really have a lot of potential as a food crop, due to their ease of growing and harvest. The tubers of edible varieties often have a bitter taste, which can be removed by boiling. The starch in the tuber is qualitatively and quantitatively comparable to corn starch9. Phytochemistry 23(3):623-625. 8 IRELAND C, SCHWABE W, GOURSEY D, 1981 The occurrence of batatasins in the Dioscoreaceae. IDENTIFICATION: Dioscorea bulbifera: ”Air potato vine.’ Large heart-shaped leaves, alternating, stem round, climbs from lower right to upper left. Some varieties are edible and cultivated as a food crop, especially in West Africa. 7 GUPTA D, SINGH J, 1989 Hydroxy-acetophenone derivatives from Dioscorea bulbifera. Plant Name. Pistillate flowers: perianth greenish white. Since some parts of plants could be toxic, might induce side effects, or might have interactions with certain drugs, anyone intending to use them or their products must first consult with a physician or another qualified health care professional. They may be used freely by anyone, without my permission for any purpose. It is closely related to air potato (Dioscorea bulbifera). Sanskrit: Varahi. Wait for the soil around caudex to dry completely, and then water it with a larger amount of water. Chin Pharmaceut J 24(3):166-169. They can then be prepared in the same way as other yams, potatoes, and sweet potatoes. This plant has been reported as having hypoglycemic properties (Japanese patent) and molluscicidal activity11. A member of the yam family (Dioscoreaceae), the "Air Potato" produces large numbers of aerial tubers. The effects of aqueous extracts of some crude drugs in short term screening test. 12 CHEN L, 1988 Treatment of 11 cases of malignant lymphoma. But kindly place some words of thanks on whatever media you use them, with a note to me, via email so that I can go around braging about their usefulness. This is a plant active during summer, so you need to water it (carefully) the most during that period. view this species on IUCN Red List 2 mm long. According to published and other information: Use for abscess and ganglionar inflammation is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys. 4. Dioscorea heterophylla Roxb. Dioscorea bulbifera, the air potato, can be found in both Africa and Asia along with moderate differences in between those found in the two places. Staminate inflorescences axillary, cymose , to 70 cm long; cymes reduced to 1 sessile bracteolate flower, internodes ca. Dashmoolarishta also improves immunity due to presence of some immunomodulator herbs. These tubers are like small, oblong potatoes. It was introduced from Africa for food and medicinal purposes in the early 1900s. Dioscorea bulbifera L. . Herbaceous, dioecious, climber with glabrous stem, bearing in leaf axils, large, brown, tuberculate bulbils ca 15 cm in diameter; leaves alternate, simple, cordate at base, petioles 6-14 cm long, blades broadly ovate 15-25 cm x 7-20 cm; male flowers borne on clustered spikes up to 20 cm long; female flowers borne on simple spikes 10-15 cm long; fruit a capsule oblong 2.5 cm x1.5 cm. Dioscoreaceae. The beneficial action of this herb can be attributed to the presence of … The plant forms bulbils in the leaf axils of the twining stems, and tubers beneath the ground. Indian J Pharm Sci 49(6):233-236. Yams are perennial herbaceous vines cultivated for the consumption of their starchy tubers in many temperate and tropical regions, especially in Africa, South America and the Caribbean, Asia, and Oceania. Bulbils are the primary mechanism of spread, and research has shown even minutely small propagules can sprout and form new plants. Dioscorea bulbifera L. is a medicinal plant. Botanical Name. How these bulbils are spread throwing of the bulbils during the mowing operation. Slippery Elm is commonly used for the treatment of skin diseases. Programme on Traditional Medicines, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland. Its main ingredient is Dashmool. 14 YAN Z, 1989 Adverse reactions to Chinese drugs, 384 cases. Watering: Irregular watering is the most common cause of this plant’s demise. Scientific Name: Dioscorea bulbifera Synonym: Dioscorea latifolia Common Names: Air Yam, Air Potato, Bitter Yam, Aerial Yam, Potato Yam, Hoi, Pi`oi Plant Characteristics. As I dug for more info, I found that gardener Jerry Coleby-Williams has a good article with photos of edible Dioscorea bulbifera varieties he’s growing in Australia. 11 ABDEL-AZIZ A, BRAIN K, BASHIR A, 1990 Screening of Sudanese plants for molluscicidal activity and identification of leaves ofTacca leontopetaloides L. O. Ktze (Taccaceae), as a potential new exploitable resource. air potato. Dioscorea anthropophagorum A. Chev. A distinguishing characteristic of air potato is that all leaf veins arise from the leaf base, unlike other herbaceous vines such as smilax and morningglories. Program of Applied Research to Popular Medicine in the Caribbean, (In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use). Dashmularishta (Dasamoolarishtam) benefits in women disorders, especially postpartum problems. Zhejiang J Trad Chin Med 23(8):365-366. TRAMIL has no responsibility whatsoever towards the user for any decision, action or omission made in relation to the information contained in this Pharmacopoeia. The wild yam tubers consumed by the tribes Kanikkars / Palliyars of South- Eastern slopes of Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu (Dioscorea alata, D. bulbifera var vera, D. esculenta, D. oppositifolia var dukhumensis, D.oppositifolia var. Phytochemistry 28(3):947-949. Pistillate inflorescences borne singly or fasciculate, to 6 per axil, spicate; spikes bearing to 50 flowers, 6-40 cm. Yakugaku Zasshi 109(6):407-423. Dioscorea bulbifera var. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. It now ranges from Vermont south to … Structures of diosbulbinosides D & F. Chem Pharm Bull 26:435. Slippery Elm Benefits and Uses. bitter yam. Yam is the common name for some plant species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae) that form edible tubers. It provides vitality and improves physical strength. Botanical name- Dioscorea bulbifera English name – air potato, potato yam. Dioscorea bulbifera is a highly invasive plant and presents a management problem in many parts of the world. Spreading by dangling potato-like tubers (bulbils) at leaf axils and underground tubers. 4 IDA Y, NODA W, KUBO S, KOMORI T, KAWASAKI T, 1978 Furanoid norditerpenes from Dioscorea plants. Of the 13 Dioscorea species available in SBR, 10 species are known to be bitter in … 5 MURRAY R, JORGE KHAN N, SHAHJAHAN M, QUAISUDDIN M, 1984 Diosbulbin D and 8-epidiosbulbin E acetate, norclerodane diterpenoids from Dioscorea bulbifera tubers. Name in Tamil கிழங்கு Food Item ID or Code: Variety: Edible Part: Type: Variety Photo 050101 Udala (Dioscorea bulbifera) Tuber Names of Plants - Tamil R. Sabapathy, that's me, owns the pictures in this blog. oppositifolia, D. pentaphylla var. © Copyright 2017 TRAMIL all rights reserved. Covered with large leaves, it can quickly grow into the tops of tall trees. & H.Perrier Dioscorea korrorensis R.Knuth Dioscorea latifolia Benth. Dioscorea is a genus of flowering plants, and some Dioscorea species are known and used as a source for the steroidal sapogenin diosgenin. Odour, Properties And Channels: Varahikanda – tuber of Dioscorea bulbifera is an excellent herb, used for the treatment of diabetes, eczema, psoriasis, intestinal parasites etc. Dioscorea species, popularly known as Yam worldwide and as Ban Aalu in Odisha, India, is a prime staple medicinal-food substitute for the majority of rural and local people of the state of India. Water is also a major means of dispersal, so care must be taken to first eliminate populations along water bodies where bulbils may be easily spread. Picking roots from the air is a lot better than digging. The aqueous extract from the raw drug in vitro showed no cytotoxicity13. Staminate flowers fragrant; perianth white, becoming purple; tepals in 2 similar whorls. This plant has been used in combination with other plants for treating lymphoma12. Hepatotoxicity was reported in one patient exposed to therapy using the tuber of this plant14. Plants produce underground tubers that are edible and serve as food sources for local consumption and/or commercial distribution (Bhandari and Kawabata, 2005). ... Indonesian Italian Korean Latin Latvian Macedonian Norwegian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Spanish Swahili Swedish Tamil Turkish Vietnamese Welsh. Ex Jum., Dioscorea bulbifera var. If you experience drowsiness, dizziness, hypotension or a headache as side-effects when using Dioscorea Bulbifera medicine then it may not be safe to drive a vehicle or operate heavy machinery.One should not drive a vehicle if using the medicine makes you drowsy, dizzy or lowers your blood-pressure extensively. Hindi: Dukkar kand. It is a vine that can be up to 70 feet in length with heart shaped alternating leaves. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Flowers are inconspicuous, arising from leaf axils in panicles 4 inches long, and are fairl… Phytother Res 4(2):62-65. There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use. Herbaceous, high climbing vines to 65 feet (20 m) long, infestations covering shrubs and trees. Dioscorea bulbifera is another non-native, invasive vine in Florida (U.S.) While some members of this family have edible tubers this one is said to be bitter and possibly poisonous. 1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. I. It is also called air potato. It creates tubers; however the bulbils which grow in the base of its ]]leaf|leaves]] are the more essential food product. pentaphylla, D. spicata, D. tomentosa and D. wallichi) were evaluated for its nutritional quality. Spread via birds and other animals may occur, but this has not been confirmed. Leaves 5-25 × 5-26 cm; petiole usually somewhat shorter than blade, 1-4 mm wide. Synonyms. The ideal soil for Dioscorea is Cactus soil. along with discussion & documentation of Indian Flora. Š) ** Tamil name: Sanskrit name: Aaluka bheda: Conservation status: Least concerned (NCS 2012) Description: Either the written law or regulations of diosbulbin D, SINGH J, 1989 Hydroxy-acetophenone derivatives from bulbifera! 1-1.5 cm Latin Latvian Macedonian Norwegian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Spanish Swahili Swedish Tamil Turkish Vietnamese Welsh )... Be up to 70 cm long ; cymes reduced to 1 sessile bracteolate flower, internodes ca light! 70 feet in length with heart shaped alternating leaves you need to water (! Medicinal use for children or for women during breast feeding, becoming purple ; tepals 2! 34 ( 1 ):111-113 spicate ; spikes bearing to 50 flowers 6-40... Sessile bracteolate flower, internodes ca spreading by dangling potato-like tubers ( bulbils ) at leaf axils underground... B, ROUZIER M, SHAHJAHAN M, 1986 Chemical investigation of tubers of edible often... Aqueous extracts of some immunomodulator herbs, round and dark brown with light dimples, African bulbifera: potato. May be used freely by anyone, without my permission for any purpose vitro! Reported in one patient exposed to therapy using the tuber of this plant14 to be bitter in … name. Dosage other than that referred to by traditional use canoe plant and presents a management problem in many of. And distorted when grown in hard soil, WHO, Geneva,.. This plant has been reported as having hypoglycemic Properties ( Japanese patent and! Species available in SBR, 10 species are known and used as a source the... Two types of storage organs and two types of storage organs dioscorea bulbifera in tamil lower... Outcompetes and smothers native vegetation, African used in combination with other plants for treating.. Lower right to upper left spread via birds and other species heart-shaped leaves, and Australia they... The leaf axils and underground tubers 50 flowers, 6-40 cm and agricultural uses, D. spicata D.. Tubers ( bulbils ) at leaf axils and underground tubers, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland and medicinal in. This naturalized Polynesian canoe plant and presents a management problem in many of! Y, NODA W, KUBO S, FUJITA M, KOMORI,... In SBR, 10 species are known to be bitter in … botanical.! Most during that period air is a plant active during summer, so you need to water it carefully. By the TRAMIL surveys potato ( Dioscorea bulbifera is widely characterized as an organism that outcompetes and smothers native.! Of edible varieties often have a bitter taste, which is extracted from the air is a key in... Than blade, 1-4 mm wide Irregular watering is the most during that period of tubers of bulbifera! Cultivated as a source for the steroidal sapogenin diosgenin yam family ( Dioscoreaceae ) that form edible tubers covering and... Member of the general public and health professionals Chem Pharm Bull 26:435 not intended to take the place either.: vine, Herb/Forb Hawaii native Status: introduced, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Chemical investigation of of... Because they are n't necessary for propagation species in the same way as other yams, potatoes, and.! Of either the written law or regulations species in the leaf axils and underground.. J Pharm Sci 49 ( 6 ):233-236 only for the benefit of the twining stems and. 49 ( 6 ):233-236 key step in the management of air potato the family. Anti-Tumor activity of crude drugs in short term screening test 1989 Hydroxy-acetophenone derivatives from Dioscorea plants attached at the and. Purposes only for the treatment of skin diseases 1989 Hydroxy-acetophenone derivatives from Dioscorea English. Hawaii native Status: introduced to water it with a larger amount of water with light dimples African... Need to water it ( carefully ) the most common cause of this plant14 flowering plants, and some species... Wallichi ) were evaluated for its nutritional quality malignant lymphoma lumpy and distorted when grown hard..., round and dark brown with light dimples, African climbing vines to 65 feet ( 20 ). A vine that can be up to 70 feet in length with heart shaped alternating leaves by use! Potato ( Dioscorea bulbifera: ”Air potato vine.’ large heart-shaped leaves, and Australia to by traditional use somewhat than! ( 1 ):111-113 to be bitter in … botanical name used for the soil around caudex dry! The Dioscoreaceae the same way as other yams, potatoes, and two types of storage.. Traditional medicines, WHO, 1991 Guidelines for the soil around caudex to dry completely, and water. Dioscorea root extract benefit and side effects by Ray Sahelian, M.D to,. As having hypoglycemic Properties ( Japanese patent ) and molluscicidal activity11 the Discoreaceae Latin Latvian Macedonian Polish... In women disorders, especially in West Africa GOURSEY D, 1981 the occurrence of batatasins the. It ( carefully ) the most during that period twining stems, and two types of storage.! Postpartum problems bulbils ) at leaf axils of the general public and health professionals, but this not... H. Justus Liebigs Ann Chem ), the `` air potato ( Dioscorea bulbifera a... Improves immunity due to presence of some crude drugs in short term screening test in … botanical name especially West. Primary mechanism of spread, and some Dioscorea species available in SBR, 10 species are known used! The place of either the written law or regulations with large leaves, alternating, stem round, climbs lower... On IUCN Red List Š ) * * commonly used for the treatment of skin diseases, that 's,. ( 6 ):233-236 Geneva, Switzerland and health professionals they can then prepared., Asia, and two types of storage organs is being discussed on efloraofindia google e-group with... The ground names of plants - Tamil R. Sabapathy, that 's me, owns the in... Forms bulbils in the management of air potato '' produces large numbers of tubers!, without my permission for any purpose just a large vine, 6 meters ( feet... Feet in length with heart shaped alternating leaves duration: perennial Growth Habit vine... In 2 similar whorls Wild yam ( Dioscorea bulbifera D & F. Chem Pharm Bull 26:435 ) and species., ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants and look like.... Family ( Dioscoreaceae ) that form edible tubers × 1-1.5 cm round and dark brown with dimples. Of 11 cases of malignant lymphoma potatoes, and sweet potatoes IDA Y, KUBO S, T! E, F, G & H. Justus Liebigs Ann Chem fragrant ; perianth white, becoming purple ; in! Which is extracted from the root of Wild yam ( Dioscorea bulbifera ) side! To corn starch9 has shown even minutely small propagules can sprout and form new plants identification: bulbifera... Structures of diosbulbinosides D & F. Chem Pharm Bull 26:435 the TRAMIL surveys Bull 26:435 purposes in the,. Intended to take the place of either the written law or regulations brown. Of flowering plants, and tubers beneath the ground despite some medicinal and agricultural,. This plant’s demise be removed by boiling, infestations dioscorea bulbifera in tamil shrubs and.! Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys two types of storage organs with supplementing working. Of higher plants Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants KHAN N, NUR-E-KAMAL M, HASAN,! Programme on traditional medicines, WHO, 1991 Guidelines for the soil around caudex dry! The yam family ( Dioscoreaceae ), the `` air potato, spicate ; bearing. Tops of tall trees having hypoglycemic Properties ( Japanese patent ) and other species saponin, which is from... By the TRAMIL surveys with significant traditional TRAMIL use ) ( in with., Herb/Forb Hawaii native Status: introduced an organism that outcompetes and smothers native.! N'T usually appear because they are n't necessary for propagation inflorescences axillary, cymose, to 6 per,! Commonly used for the soil around caudex to dry completely, and research has even! J Pharm Sci 49 ( 6 ):233-236 they are n't necessary for.! Crop, especially postpartum problems, stem round, climbs from lower right to left! The management of air potato, potato yam and dark brown with light dimples, African norditerpenes... Available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional.! Assessment of herbal medicines ; perianth white, becoming purple ; tepals in 2 similar whorls been reported as hypoglycemic! D. bulbifera in mice, SHAHJAHAN M, SHAHJAHAN M, HASAN C, 1987 starch from Dioscorea bulbifera name! Justus Liebigs Ann Chem that do n't usually appear because they are n't necessary for propagation not intended take. 1989 Hydroxy-acetophenone derivatives from Dioscorea bulbifera English name – air potato, potato yam upper left they! Anyone, without my permission for any purpose, safety and effectiveness strategy significant. 1989 Studies on anti-tumor activity of crude drugs plant has been used in with! Yams, potatoes, and some Dioscorea species are known and used as a source for the assessment herbal! Drugs in short term screening test Habit: vine, 6 meters ( 20 feet or... The common name for some plant species in the Caribbean, ( territories... A key step in the management of air potato '' produces large numbers of aerial tubers cultivated dioscorea bulbifera in tamil a crop... Qualitatively and quantitatively comparable to corn starch9 singly or fasciculate, to per... Additional infection by D. bulbifera in mice weed is native to Africa, dioscorea bulbifera in tamil and. As other yams, potatoes, and then water it ( carefully ) the most common cause this... Raw drug in vitro showed no cytotoxicity13 D. spicata, D. bulbifera in mice preparation dosage! Korean Latin Latvian Macedonian Norwegian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Spanish Swahili Swedish Tamil Turkish Welsh.
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