It has spread to several other states as well as Canada and has the potential to kill millions of trees throughout North America and may threaten the beeches of Europe as well. Fagus grandifolia at the USDA Forest Service's Silvics of North America site. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), disability, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, and veteran status. American Beech is a large deciduous tree with smooth, light-gray bark and prominently veined, toothed, dark green leaves. Fagus grandifolia on Grand tree with low, spreading branches and an oval or rounded crown. Beech nuts are edible to wildlife and humans,[9] but are too small to be commercially valuable. American beech prefers moist, well-drained, acid soil, is intolerant of wet or compacted soil, prefers sun but will tolerate shade. Maine to Florida, west to Texas, Oklahoma, Illinois, Michigan, and Minnesota. Flower: Species is monoecious; male flowers borne on globose heads hanging from a slender 1 inch stalk, female flowers borne on shorter spikes, appearing just after leaves in the spring. This disease occurs when the beech scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisuga, attacks the bark, creating a wound that is then infected by one of two different species of fungi in the genus Nectria. Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) … The winter twigs are distinctive among North American trees, being long and slender (15–20 mm (5⁄8–3⁄4 in) by 2–3 mm (0.079–0.118 in)) with two rows of overlapping scales on the buds. The leaves turn a... See Details Below. Beech leaf disease, first discovered in Ohio in 2012, is thought to be caused by nematodes. It is a sturdy, imposing, large deciduous tree typically growing to 60 to 80 feet tall or more with a dense, upright-oval to a rounded-spreading crown and smooth bark that remains smooth as the tree ages. The better known Fagus subgenus beeches are high-branching with tall, stout trunks and smooth silver-grey bark. This tree is slightly salt tolerant. Fagus grandifolia Beech family (Fagaceae) Description: This tree is about 60-100' tall, forming a trunk about 1½–4' across and an ovoid crown. More About Fagus grandifolia . Fruit of F. grandifolia is smaller and its leaves have more veins (9-14 pairs vs. 5-9 pairs) than the more common landscape species, F. sylvatica. Female flowers give way to triangular nuts enclosed by spiny bracts. Accessed 2020-09-27. Although American beech's natural range extends across most of the eastern US and southeastern Canada, mature specimens are rare in lowland areas as early settlers quickly discovered that the presence of the tree indicated good farmland. The aphids are food for the Harvester butterfly (Feniseca tarquinius), North Carolina's only carnivorous butterfly. Trunks have distinctive thin, smooth, gray bark. Large crops are produced by 60 years. The subgenera Fagus is the one native to North America and Europe and Engleriana is native to Asia. It is in flower from April to May, and the seeds ripen from October to November. Like European beech bark, the American beech bark is smooth and uniform, making it an attraction for people to carve names, dates, decorative symbols such as love hearts or gang identifiers, and other material into its surface. Beech develops suckers from its vast system of surface roots and entire beech groves have often grown from the roots of a single tree. It also makes high quality, long-burning firewood. Grouped toward the ends of branches or short branchlets. It is in flower from April to May, and the seeds ripen from October to November. Fagus grandifolia is a deciduous Tree growing to 10 m (32ft) by 10 m (32ft) at a slow rate. Tree size: Reaches a height of 50 to 70 feet with a spread equal to or less than the height. American beech is an important tree in forestry. heterophylla Camp: FAGRC: Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. Beech blight aphids are common, forming dense colonies on small branches and the undersides of leaves. The American beech is native to eastern North America, from Nova Scotia west to southern Ontario in southeastern Canada, west to Wisconsin and south to eastern Texas and northern Florida in the United States. It can be a beautiful tree in a large area, but is not recommended for smaller landscapes. Jon M. Conrad, " Open access and extinction of the passenger pigeon in North America", Interactive distribution map for Fagus grandifolia,, Natural history of the Great Smoky Mountains, Articles with dead external links from August 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles needing additional references from April 2019, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 18:34. Near its southern limit, it often shares canopy dominance with southern magnolia. Read our Commitment to Diversity | Read our Privacy Statement. It is sometimes planted as an ornamental tree, but even within its native area, it is planted much less often than the European beech. Please register or login to build your personal plant list. The male flowers are greenish white and borne in feathery globose heads, while female flowers are borne on small green spikes. Synonyme der Art sind Fagus americana (Pers.) In the mountains, it is sometimes found in dense, unmixed stands or in association with sugar maples, yellow birch, and other hardwoods. The wood is hard and difficult to cut or split, although at 43 pounds per cubic foot (690 kg/m3) it is not exceptionally heavy, and it also rots relatively easily. [3], The American beech is a shade-tolerant species, commonly found in forests in the final stage of succession. Fagus grandifolia, or American beech, is native to eastern North America and found throughout the state of North Carolina. Native to eastern North America, Fagus grandifolia (American Beech) is a magnificent, large, deciduous tree adorned with a short trunk and a dense, wide-spreading crown. It is a deciduous tree growing to 20–35 m (66–115 ft) tall, with smooth, silver-gray bark. Fagus grandifolia, commonly called American beech, is native to eastern North America. American beech does not produce significant quantities of nuts until the tree is about 40 years old. It is a large deciduous tree typically growing to 50-80’ (less frequently to 120’) tall with a dense, upright-oval to rounded-spreading crown. ssp. The oldest documented tree is 246 years old. An excellent shade tree. The European beech (Fagus sylvatica) is the most commonly cultivated. org/ articles/ fagus/ fagus-grandifolia/). The bark is very smooth, silver gray… This causes a canker to develop and the tree is eventually killed. [citation needed], Beech blight aphids colonize branches of the tree, but without serious harm to otherwise healthy trees. Sweet und Fagus ferruginea Aiton die Unterart Fagus grandifolia subsp. Leaves are dark green and glossy above, lighter green below, sometimes tomentose along the midrib and in vein axils on underside. In fall the flowers are followed by the fruit called beechnuts and are edible. Fagus americana Sweet: FAFE: Fagus ferruginea Aiton: FAGRH: Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. Fagus grandifolia, the American beech or North American beech, is the species of beech tree native to the eastern United States and extreme southeast Canada. The nuts are eaten by small mammals, white-tailed deer, black bears, foxes, ruffed grouse, wild turkeys, ducks, woodpeckers, white-breasted nuthatches, American crows and blue jays. Trees in the southern half of the range are sometimes distinguished as a variety, F. grandifolia var. [8] The fruit is a triangle-shaped shell containing 2–3 nuts inside, but many of them do not fill in, especially on solitary trees. Fagus grandifolia, or American beech, is native to eastern North America and found throughout the state of North Carolina. form a strategic partnership called N.C. The fruit is a small, sharply-angled nut, borne in pairs in a soft-spined, four-lobed husk. Image Tom Christian. A. J. Rehder (1907) argued for recognition of a southern variety (Fagus grandifolia var. Below these colonies, deposits of sooty mold develop caused by the fungus Scorias spongiosa growing saprophytically on the honeydew the insects exude. This is a native plant growing wild on Theodore Roosevelt Island, in Washington, D.C., USA. VIDEO Created by Elizabeth Meyer for "Trees, Shrubs and Conifers" a plant identification course offered in partnership with Longwood Gardens. The Mexican beech (Fagus grandifolia var. It has an upright to oval spreading crown, low growing branches and smooth grey bark Nutmeats, in small quantities, edible raw or cooked. mexicana), native to the mountains of central Mexico, is closely related, and is sometimes treated as a subspecies of American beech, but some botanists often classified as a distinct species. Can cause stomach irritation in some individuals if eaten in quantity. It is a sturdy, imposing, large deciduous tree typically growing to 60 to 80 feet tall or more with a dense, upright-oval to a rounded-spreading crown and smooth bark that remains smooth as the tree ages. It is hardy to zone (UK) 4 and is not frost tender. Fagus sylvatica: Fagus grandifolia American beech The monoecious male and female flowers are borne on the same plant and are not showy.